Ohio Buckeye is pollinated by Ruby-throated Hummingbirds, long-tongued bees like Bumble bees (Bombus spp.), Long-horned bees (Synhalonia spp.), Mason bees (Osmia spp.) and Anthophorine bees (Anthophora spp) seeking nectar. Sometimes smaller bees like Halictid and Andrenid bees will also visit the flowers.
It is a host plant for the Maple Twig Borer Moth (Proteoteras aesculana).
Various insects feed on the leaves, sap, and bark of the tree, including leafhoppers, beetles, armored-scale insects, spittlebugs, and thrips.
Squirrels will eat the nuts and will scoop them up from the ground. Eastern Fox Squirrels have been known to eat the pith of the twigs, which have a sugary substance.
Deer and other mammals tend to stay away from Ohio Buckeye because of its poisonous leaves and bark, and well, they stink.
The Tricolored Bat (Perimyotis subflavus) a Threatened species in Wisconsin will use Ohio Buckeye as a summer roost tree. If you want to help out these creatures, plant an Ohio Buckeye!