Sharp-lobed Hepatica (Liverwort) blooms so early that most pollinators like butterflies, moths, and hummingbirds still have yet to arrive locally. Instead, this plant’s nectar-less flowers are primarily pollinated by bees. Carpenter, Sweat bees, and occasionally Mining bees pollinate Liverwort, but they prefer nectar-producing plants that bloom concurrently, such as Trout Lilies. But, come later in spring, if Liverwort is still blooming, it will see other pollinator visitors such as butterflies, moths, flies, and even beetles.
Hepatica can self-pollinate, so these visitors are unnecessary for seed production.
Ants often carry the seeds as they love to gorge themselves on elaiosomes, the fleshy appendage attached to the seed. The elaiosomes are loaded with healthy fats and nutrients, a favorite among many ant species. The ant colonies are generally a good place for seed germination, which further aids the spread and colonization of Hepatica.
Similar to Bloodroot, Hepatica is yet another nyctinastic native, so colder night temperatures might inhibit pollinators from accessing the blooms. Nyctinasty means the opening and closing of flowers or leaves associated with temperature or light intensity changes.